– Other/In General

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504.14000 – Other/In General

Unlawful motive is “the specific nexus required in the establishment of a prima facie case” of retaliation. “[D]irect proof of motivation is rarely possible, since motivation is a state of mind which may be known only to the actor. Thus . . . unlawful motive can be established by circumstantial evidence and inferred from the record as a whole.” (Novato Unified School District (1982) PERB Decision No. 210).